The people of Chulucanas, Peru are known for their pottery. Using clay from the ground beneath their feet, they massage and shape it to create masterful pieces of art. The clay and techniques used are unique to this art form, and from it they achieve an elegant, soft beauty unlike any other type of sculpting.
Preparing the Chulucanas Clay
It is necessary to remove the air inside the clay and make it even. This is done by kneading the clay to work out any bubbles or air pockets. Giancarlo Gallardo is the “amasador” on this project, or “the kneader.”
Shaping the Clay
Once the clay has been processed, it moves to the wheel to be shaped. Working the wheel is Cesar Yovera.
Using his hands and after the lamp comes off of the wheel, it must dry for a few days before it can be finished. The length of drying time depends on the weather. Applying water, he hollows out the clay and then raises the sides. With a stone, he applies pressure to both the inside and the outside to give it shape.
He uses his tools to shave off any excess clay and coaxes it into shape with his hands, gently tapering the top until only a small hole remains. Cesar then cleans the top using a rock. He measures the piece, cuts the hole to size, and removes the piece from the wheel.
Refining the Shape
After a few days, the lamp can be refined, though the clay is still damp. Luis Yovera works on the finishing. He uses wire and a piece of a tape measure to smooth the clay. (Each person uses the tools that work best for them.)
Luis uses the wire first and then applies water, using the tape measure last to smooth the clay. The shavings that are removed from the clay are recycled so nothing goes to waste. He then cuts a hole in the base to create a place for the cord to sit. Finally, he flips the lamp and repeats the smoothing process.
Painting and Burnishing the Clay
After the smoothing and finishing, the lamp only sits for 30 minutes before moving onto the next process–the “engobado” process. Alexander Merino Ipanaque applies light blue color, using a brush and spinning wheel. The pigment is mixed with white clay so that a shine will appear when the piece is burnished. Alexander applies the color three times in order to assure that the finish is even.
After the engobado process, the lamp sits for 15 minutes to dry before burnishing. Maria Lopez burnishes the lamp by rubbing a river rock in a circular fashion over the clay. She uses her own tools and is able to complete 10 to 15 pieces per day.
Firing and Decorating Lamp
After the lamp is burnished, it is allowed to dry and then fired in the kiln.
The lamp then goes to be decorated. The piece is dipped into liquid clay. The artisans then use a pattern to remove the liquid clay where they want the piece to be blackened. In the case of the lamp, the birds and leaves are left black.
The piece is then fired a second time. Victor Ruidiaz operates the kiln. Lamps are placed inside the kiln, which is then covered and topped with stones. Victor stokes the fire with mango leaves in order to smoke the pieces and create a rich black finish. Each piece is smoked four times to achieve this deep color.
After the firing, artisans chip away the clay to reveal the negative space.